Which Institution Is the Final Authority for Making Laws in Any Country Class 9

Both houses of Congress have broad investigative powers and can compel the presentation of evidence or testimony for any purpose they deem necessary. Members of Congress spend a lot of time holding hearings and inquiries in committee. Refusal to cooperate with a congressional subpoena may result in a contempt of Congress indictment, which may result in jail time. The executive branch also controls itself: sixty-four inspectors general, each responsible for a different body, regularly audit and report on the bodies to which they are affiliated. A bill must be passed by both houses of Congress before being submitted to the president for consideration. Although the Constitution requires that both bills have exactly the same wording, in practice this rarely happens. In order to bring the bills into compliance, a conference committee composed of members of both chambers will be convened. Committee members prepare a conference report, which is supposed to be the final version of the bill. Each House then votes again on the adoption of the conference report. Depending on the origin of the bill, the final text is then recorded by the Clerk of the House or the Secretary of the Senate and submitted to the Speaker of the House and the Speaker of the Senate for signature. The bill is then sent to the president. Oversight of the executive branch is an important review of the president`s power by Congress and a balance against its discretion in implementing laws and enacting regulations. Article I of the Constitution lists the powers of Congress and the specific areas in which it may legislate.

Congress also has the power to enact laws deemed “necessary and appropriate” for the exercise of the powers conferred on any part of government under the Constitution. It is true that Parliament is the final authority to legislate in any country. Parliament is an assembly of elected representatives who exercise supreme political authority on behalf of the people. It is the highest forum where reports and recommendations are discussed and debated. Parliamentarians very meticulously. Parliamentarians exercise control over those who run the government. Those who run the government can only make decisions as long as they have the support of parliament. Parliament controls all the money that the government has in most countries, public money can only be spent if parliament imposes sanctions. The legislature consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate, which together form the United States Congress. The Constitution grants Congress exclusive power to legislate and declare war, the right to confirm or reject numerous presidential appointments, and broad investigative powers.

Part of the exercise of legislative power by Congress is to prepare an annual budget for the government. To this end, Congress imposes taxes and tariffs to fund basic government services. If not enough money can be raised to fund the government, Congress can also approve loans to make up the difference. Congress can also order spending for specific items: legislated spending, commonly referred to as “allocations,” indicates funds for a specific project rather than a government agency. A bill is first considered by a subcommittee, where it can be passed, amended or rejected completely. If the members of the subcommittee agree to introduce a bill, it is reported to the committee as a whole, where the process is repeated again. At this stage of the process, committees and subcommittees convene hearings to examine the merits and shortcomings of the legislation. They invite experts, lawyers and opponents to appear before the committee and testify, and can force people to appear with subpoena powers if necessary. Congress, as one of the three equal branches of government, is vested with important powers by the Constitution. All legislative power of the government belongs to Congress, which means that it is the only part of the government that can enact new laws or amend existing laws. Law enforcement agencies promulgate regulations that have the full force of law, but these are only under the authority of laws enacted by Congress. The president can veto bills passed by Congress, but Congress can also override a veto by a two-thirds majority in the Senate and House of Representatives.

When the president receives a bill from Congress, he has several options. If the president essentially approves the law, he can sign it, and the law is then printed in the statutes. If the president believes the law is bad policy, he can veto it and send it back to Congress. Congress can override the veto by a two-thirds majority of each house, after which the bill becomes law and is printed. When the bill is before us, the House has a very structured discussion process. Each Member who wishes to speak has only a few minutes and the number and type of amendments are usually limited. In the Senate, debate on most bills is unlimited – senators can speak during their speeches on subjects other than this bill, and any amendment can be tabled.